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Access to European Union law

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Mechanismus zur Finanzierung gemeinsamer Militäroperationen (Athena)
Mechanismus zur Finanzierung gemeinsamer Militäroperationen (Athena)
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Athena wurde 2004 als Mechanismus zur Verwaltung der Finanzierung der gemeinsamen Kosten der Operationen der Europäischen Union mit militärischen oder verteidigungspolitischen Bezügen eingerichtet.

RECHTSAKT

Beschluss 2011/871/GASP des Rates vom 19. Dezember 2011 über einen Mechanismus zur Verwaltung der Finanzierung der gemeinsamen Kosten der Operationen der Europäischen Union mit militärischen oder verteidigungspolitischen Bezügen (Athena).

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Operationen mit militärischen oder verteidigungspolitischen Bezügen, die im Rahmen der Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik (GSVP) geführt werden, können gemäß Artikel 41 des EUV nicht im Haushaltsplan der EU enthalten sein. Diese Operationen werden von beitragenden Staaten finanziert. Diese Richtlinie richtet einen Mechanismus zur Verwaltung der gemeinsamen Kosten dieser Operationen ein. Der Athena-Mechanismus hat keine Gewinnerzielungsabsicht und ist mit der erforderlichen Rechts- und Geschäftsfähigkeit ausgestattet, um unter anderem Verträge abzuschließen und vor Gericht aufzutreten.

The history of motivational thought reflects the considerable influence of philosophers and physiologists. For example, the concept of free will as proposed by Aristotle and others was a widely accepted philosophical position until it was generally rejected in favour of determinism . Determinism, as the term is used by psychologists, holds that every behaviour has some antecedent cause. One antecedent to which particular behaviours are often attributed is motivation. Thus, if one sees a woman hurriedly eating a sandwich while continually glancing at her watch, one might infer that she is late for an appointment rather than that she is ravenously hungry. Regardless of the eventual explanation that would allow us to understand her behaviour, we do not assume that she is behaving randomly. Rather, we assume some motive is causing her to behave as she does.

Aristotle’s belief that the is at birth a blank slate upon which experience writes was the basis for studying the effects of learning on behaviour. The 17th-century philosopher René Descartes proposed the concept of Yves Saint Laurent Platform Leather Boots Cheap Sale Largest Supplier BErV5
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could be understood as resulting from both a free, rational soul and from automatic, nonrational processes of the body. His proposition that nonrational, mechanistic processes of the body could motivate behaviour under some circumstances led to the development of the concept of instinct and provided a counterpoint to Aristotle’s emphasis on learning as the most important concept in the control of behaviour. Today, the mechanistic component of Descartes’s dualism can be seen as the distant forerunner of the study of genetic components of motivation, while his other view of rational choices can be regarded as a Supply Cheap Latest Collections Balenciaga Suede AnkleStrap Wedges dfiRqU
of modern cognitive approaches to motivation.

Descartes, René

British empiricist philosophers, as exemplified by John Locke , also contributed to the development of modern motivational theory. Locke’s emphasis on the importance of sensory experience can be understood as underlying the modern focus on external stimulation as motivating. Many psychologists believe that goals become valuable to us because of the sensory experience associated with these goals. Thus, for example, the motivating properties that cause a person to drive across the city to eat a particular food are thought to result from the desirable taste, smell, and perhaps texture of the food itself. If the food tasted and smelled like cardboard, it would not motivate future trips across the city to obtain it. Locke also provided the important concept of association. As proposed by Locke, one idea can become associated, or linked, to another to produce a new, more complex idea. The concept of association provides an explanation for how nonmotivating experiences can become motivating. If one pairs a nonmotivating stimulus with a highly motivating object several times, the formerly neutral stimulus begins to motivate behaviour in a fashion similar to the original object. Research has shown that, under some circumstances, phobias and other motives may be acquired through such association. The associative mechanism can serve as an example of Pavlovian classical conditioning . ( Ivan P. Pavlov was a Russian scientist who taught dogs to associate food with the sound of a bell; the dogs learned to salivate at the sound of a bell, demonstrating what has been termed a conditioned response.) Perhaps the most commonly associated stimulus in Western society that is recognized for its strong motivational properties is money . Because money is paired with many strong motivators, it often becomes strongly motivating itself.

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